Published Computing Machinery and Intelligence in 1950
Language allows for in-depth probing of intelligence and consciousness:
Q: In the first line of your sonnet which reads "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day," would not "a spring day" do as well or better?
A: It wouldn't scan.
Q: How about "a winter's day?" That would scan all right.
A: Yes, but nobody wants to be compared to a winter's day.
Q: Would you say Mr. Pickwick reminded you of Christmas?
A: In a way.
Q: Yet Christmas is a winter's day, and I do not think Mr. Pickwick would mind the comparison.
A: I don't think you're serious. By a winter's day one means a typical winter's day, rather than a special one like Christmas.
1956 Dartmouth Conference
John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, Nathaniel Rochester, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, Oliver Selfridge, Trenchant More, Arthur Samuel, Ray Solomonoff
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (CMU): Logic Theorist, General Problem-Solver
John McCarthy (MIT): LISP
Arthur Samuel (IBM): Checkers
Thomas Evans (MIT): ANALOGY
Marvin Minsky (MIT): Neural networks
Frank Rosenblatt (Cornell): Perceptrons
Joseph Weizenbaum (MIT): ELIZA
Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish Perceptrons in 1969
Research focuses on knowledge-representation, logic, and planning
Many rule-based expert systems developed
Terry Winograd develops SHRDLU at MIT
What is a neural network?
(Re)discovery of "backpropagation learning algorithm"
Backpropagation solved some of the problems pointed out by Minsky and Papert
Other researchers developed new learning algorithms
NetTalk (Sejnowski and Rosenberg): learned to pronounce English text by example
ALVINN (CMU): learned to autonomously drive a car on the highway
IBM's Deep Blue became the world chess champion on May 11, 1997 by defeating Garry Kasparov (3.5 to 2.5)
Deep Junior held its own against Kasparov in a February 2003 rematch (3 to 3)
Gerry Tesauro's TD-Gammon program learned to play world-class backgammon by playing millions of games against itself
David Cope's EMI program composes music in the style of Bach and Mozart
Genetic Algorithms use ideas from evolutionary biology to evolve programs
Rodney Brooks at MIT developed a new approach to robotics ("behavior-based control")
Robotics is currently an extremely active research area
Successes so far have been limited to narrow domains
AI systems still lack human-level flexibility and adaptiveness
Computer speed and memory capacity continue to increase exponentially
Ray Kurzweil predicts that a $1000 PC will match the computing speed and capacity of the human brain by the year 2020
Hans Moravec predicts that a humanoid robot will be viable by the year 2030
AI researchers often suffer from over-confidence
It is not my aim to surprise or shock youbut the simplest way I
can summarize is to say that there are now in the world machines that think,
that learn and that create. . . . Within 10 years a computer will be world chess
Herbert Simon, 1957
Moral: We should be skeptical of the hype
Fast, powerful hardware is not enough
Software is at least as important (probably much more)
AI has come far since Turing's 1950 article
AI still has far to go